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Hamburger gill disease, catfish - USA


From: Martin Hugh-Jones
From: Chan Yow Cheong, PhD
ProMED-mail Regional Moderator for Asia
-->Date: Fri, 10 Dec 1999 From: Marjorie P. Pollack pollackmp@mindspring.comSource: Associated Press 30 Nov 1999 [edited]

Hamburger gill disease, catfish - USA

A Georgia researcher has discovered a common minnow can help protect farm-raised catfish from hamburger gill disease, which costs the industry between $50 million and $100 million a year.

Farm-raised catfish have become the fifth most popular food fish in the United States. The industry supplied only 6 million pounds in 1970, but now produces more than 525 million pounds worth about $592 million each year.

Gary Burtle, an aquaculture specialist at the University of Georgia's Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, has demonstrated that flathead minnows, a common, inexpensive fish bait, offer protection from the hamburger gill disease.

"From the reports I get, it works, but it's not 100 percent,'' Burtle said. "We haven't totally solved this problem, but we have reduced the severity of the infection.''

Hamburger gill disease can kill an entire pond of catfish in as little as 3 days. It damages the gills, making it tough for the fish to get enough oxygen. They eventually suffocate. It is the fourth most common fatal catfish disease.

During his tests, Burtle discovered an almost invisible worm, about a half-inch long and thin as a human hair, harbors the parasite causing hamburger gill disease.

"If you build a pond, you probably will have these worms,'' he said, noting the worm population seems to be higher in freshly dug ponds, or ponds having been emptied and refilled.

The worm, known as _Dero digitata_, is found all over the world. It is a host for a protozoan releasing spores. The spores get trapped in the catfish's gills, leaving them looking like hamburger meat.

"We tried to find chemicals to combat the parasite, but we decided chemicals that would kill the worms would kill the catfish,'' Burtle said. "We looked for a fish that would be very effective at seeking these worms out in the mud. The carp was best, but it grows large and would compete with the catfish for feed.''

Then he decided to try the flathead minnow, which is in the carp family. The 2 1/2- to 3-inch (8-9cm) minnow is olive drab on top and white on the bottom.

"We place them in beakers with the worms and they eat them in seconds,'' Burtle said.

Fish farmers are already using the minnows in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas, Alabama and Florida, Burtle said. He recommends about 10 pounds for each acre of pond.

Burtle said fish farmers could conduct monitoring programs to detect the worms, but they would be considerably more expensive and time consuming.

"We're suggesting they stock the minnows,'' he said. "They take about a month to reduce the population to a non-threatening level.''
[We have the scientific name of the worm vector but not of the actual parasite that does the damage. Could it be _Trichophyra_? Can anyone help? - Mod.JW]
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New Vaccines for Aquaculturists


Like people, fish have their share of diseases and need vaccines to keep them healthy. Agricultural Research Service scientists at Auburn, Alabama, have developed several of these vaccines and are now closing in on one that protects fish from a Streptococcus bacterium.
The agency's Aquatic Animal Health Research Laboratory is developing a new vaccine against Streptococcus iniae, says Phillip H. Klesius, who heads the Auburn unit. "S. iniae is an emerging bacterial pathogen in cultivated tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, yellowtail, eel, and turbot. Worldwide, streptococcal infections are reported in 22 fish species, both cultured and wild," he says.
S. iniae is recognized as one of the most problematic bacterial pathogens in intensively cultured tilapia and hybrid striped bass in the United States. Development of good health management practices and a vaccine to control it is a superior approach to using antibiotics or chemicals, Klesius says.
Klesius, ARS molecular biologist Craig A. Shoemaker, and ARS aquatic pathologist Joyce J. Evans are co-developing the vaccine. This team combines unique expertise in fish disease prevention. Members conduct basic research to understand immunity, transmission, and infection—particularly in hybrid striped bass and tilapia.
"We found the S. iniae bacterium possibly enters the nostrils of the fish from the water," says Evans, who is with the Auburn unit but based at Washington College in Chestertown, Maryland. She is researching fish health problems associated with fish kills and aquatic pathogens. "Finding out how bacteria enter and travel through the fish may aid in development of an effective vaccine," she says.
The higher the density of cultured fish, the more easily S. iniae is transmitted and the higher the mortality, says Shoemaker. "Signs of the disease in fish are abnormal behavior such as erratic swimming, whirling motion at the surface of the water, darkening of the skin, blindness, popeyes, and small lesions on the body, fins, and anus."
Antibiotics are currently used to control the streptococcal disease in fish. Surprisingly, the team's research indicates there are certain negative effects on fish health and immunity after antibiotic treatment for S. iniae. This indicates that antibiotic treatment suppresses streptococcal disease signs but doesn't completely eliminate the bacterium from treated fish.
Vaccine to the Rescue
These new findings are important determinants for developing a successful vaccine to fight S. iniae, which causes $150 million a year in losses. The ARS scientists are designing it to provide lifelong protection. In laboratory studies, it has reduced mortality in tilapia and hybrid striped bass by more than 80 percent.
Popular in Asian countries, tilapia is showing up on more U.S. menus. Since 1997, U.S. fresh and frozen tilapia imports have increased 28 percent and U.S. tilapia cultivation is expanding steadily. Hybrid striped bass consumption and production through cultivation are also increasing rapidly because of rising consumer demand for this excellent-tasting fish.
"We are currently developing plans to test the vaccine on a larger scale throughout the United States," Klesius says. "We are testing effectiveness of both injection and the bath immersion immunization that gives fish farmers more flexibility. This vaccine could potentially save producers money worldwide."
The ARS team has filed for a patent on the new vaccine for use in both small and larger sized fish.
More Catfish Disease Protection
Klesius and Shoemaker recently developed the first approved modified live-bacterium fish vaccine, one that protects young channel catfish against enteric septicemia (ESC). A major catfish disease caused by the bacterium Edwardsiella ictaluri, ESC costs catfish farmers as much as $60 million a year in losses. This new vaccine—made of a live E. ictaluri organism rendered unable to cause disease—prevents infection. ARS has filed for a patent on it. New Vaccines for Aquaculturists
Also called "hole in the head," enteric septicemia is characterized by lesions and holes in the fish's cranium, as well as by a bright-red color at the base of its gills and belly. It accounts for 70 percent of disease losses in catfish but has never been associated with human infection.
"In field studies," Shoemaker says, "the ESC vaccine reduced catfish mortality by 80 percent."
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Poverty alleviation through fish culture:

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Homestead cafish culture in BangladeshFelix Marttin1 and Gertjan de Graaf 21Inland Water Resources andAquaculture Service (FIRI) FAO. Felix.Marttin@fao.org2Nefisco foundation,Lijnbaansgracht 14C, 1015GN AmsterdamThe Netherlands, degraf@nefisco.org


A large part of the population of Bangladesh is poor. The poorest of these poor find themselves in a vicious circle, because they don’t have collateral to prime income-generating activities. Many attempts have been made to break this circle. The micro credit schemes, operated by several NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are a good example of such attempts. The main idea is to give people access to resources with which they can generate an income, with which they then can acquire more resources to generate more income. Instead of providing money or other means to acquire resources to generate income, another approach to the poverty-problem is to try to find a way to generate income with resources available to these poorest people. In Bangladesh, most poor people can work, have access to land on which their shack is built, what the area (or fields) around it can provide, and water.

An income-generating activity making optimal use of these resources is homestead catfish culture, as was practised locally in the project area of the Compartmentalization Pilot Project (CPP) in the central region of Bangladesh. This practice was taken up by the CPP, and further refined into a homestead fish-culture programme. Requirements for this activity are; food for fish, a small pit, water, and catfish fry.

The fish food can be collected from the surroundings of the homestead (snails, bivalves, termites, ants, slaughter waste, etc.). The pit does not have to be large, 1m2 is enough for 50 fry, so it can be dug by the participants themselves. Catfish fry is widely available in Bangladesh, for reasonable prices (between 10 to 50 Taka [= US$0.2 to US$1] (1US$ is equal to about 50 bangladesh Taka) for 50 pieces). After a rearing period of four months the production will be five to six kg of African catfish, which is equal to approximately 400 Taka (=US$8).

The concept of homestead catfish culture

The basic concept of a homestead catfish culture programme is that the poorest people in an area are introduced to an easy method to culture fish in small holes or pits in the ground on the homestead. The African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) is used because this fish is known to take up oxygen from air, has a high growth rate, and is very disease resistant. Experience shows that as soon as people are introduced to this method, they adapt it to the possibilities around their homesteads. During and after successfully raising a first batch of fish, the people on and around the involved homesteads develop initiatives for continuation of the activity, such as contacting local fry traders and trying out different food sources locally available. In the programme, initiatives like these are stimulated and form the core of the success of it.

All training of participants was done on site, at the homestead. Field staff worked with around 50 participants per staff member at a time. The first interaction between participants and field staff was during the identification of participants. To ensure selection of the poorest of the poor, a general review of the participants’ situation was made. To be selected for the programme the potential participants had to comply with few criteria. They had to be (a) landless (people owning less then 0.02 ha of land are considered landless in Bangladesh), (b) their general situation had to be poor/desperate, and (c) their house needed to have mud, bamboo or jute walls.

If potential participants fitted all criteria they were asked about their interest in partaking in the programme, which involved them buying fry for a reduced price (10 Taka, 20 US cents) from the field officer. The price was reduced to facilitate cooperation between the field officers and the participants, so that it was possible to visit the participants at certain intervals, and ask questions about their experiences.

During the sale of the fry, four basic rules for catfish culture, which would provide an easy method to grow the fish, were explained to the participants:

  • The fish need to be fed every day, preferably until they do not want to eat anymore.
  • The food can be anything, except grass and plastic. The best food being protein rich food.
  • As soon as the water in the pit starts smelling bad it needs to be changed.
  • During the change of water special attention needs to be paid to the sizes of the fish; these need to be in the same range, to prevent cannibalism.

Two to three days after the sale of fry, the involved field officer paid the participant a visit. This proved to be crucial to the success or failure of the participating household; a number of participants not visited within these three days failed to rear their fish successfully. After the first two contacts, the household was visited every three to four weeks, to monitor progress and to answer any questions concerning fish culture in each pit.

Participating households

Two hundred households participated in the homestead catfish culture programme. The average size of these households was around five. Most male household members (84 percent) had an income-earning job with which they earned on average 49 Taka per day. On the other hand, most of the women in the selected households stayed on the homestead (90 percent) and were not earning money. The women who did earn an income brought home less then men, the average daily income for women was 15 Taka. A small number of children (2 percent) generated an income, on average 22 Taka per day per child. Sixty percent of the children went to school, primary school in most cases being the highest education of these children. On the whole the daily income per household was around 60 Taka.

The participating household members had two to three meals per day, mainly consisting of rice and vegetables. Three times per week the vegetables included pulses (dhal), containing high levels of protein. Twice a week the meals were supplemented with fish, once every two weeks with meat, and once a month chicken was added to the meal. Eggs and milk were consumed less then three times per week.


Women took care of most of the pits (80 percent), men (15 percent) and children (5 percent). Care for the fish consisted mainly of collection of fish-food. This food could be collected from around the homestead, because the catfish eats almost anything. Children from nearby assisted caretakers in the collection of food, because of the interaction children had with the fish while feeding. It turned out that feeding was like a fun game to them. The food supply costs can be considered zero, taking into account that mainly women and children (who do not earn any income) collected the food. The supplied food consisted mainly of snails (46 percent), rice (18 percent), wheat bran (9 percent), rice bran (9 percent), bivalves (5 percent), or slaughter waste (5 percent). In other cases termites, earthworms, wheat powder, cow dung, fish, bread and duckweed were used. On average the water in the pit was replaced every 10 to 12 days. The average time spent on the fish was one hour per day. The caretakers themselves took decisions concerning management of the pits and, more importantly, decided what happened with the fish produced.

Twenty households were not able to grow their fish to marketable size (>75g), due to several reasons:

  • Insufficient guidance by the project staff (not visiting the household within three days after distribution of the fish, not visiting the household every three to four weeks).
  • Not enough time spent on the management of the pit by the responsible person in the household (less then one hour per day).
  • Escaping of fish (after flood, or heavy rain).

Over a six-month period 158 new households took up this method of fish farming, without intervention of the regular programme, a diffusion ratio of 158/200 = 0.79.


African catfish will grow when the temperature of water in which they are kept is higher then 200C. Therefore, for the programme to be successful, a minimum water temperature needs to be guaranteed. This can be done by either having a growth season during summer, or to ensure a supply of water with a minimum temperature of 200C. Some of the participants used to replace the water from their pit daily with tube-well water of 210C.

Environmental aspects

In the homestead fishculture programme the African catfish is being used, because of its earlier mentioned features. These features are unique to the African catfish. The main reason for the preference for the African catfish over the local catfish (Clarias batrachus) is its growth rate. The growth rate of the African catfish is much higher then that of its local relative. Some reservations about the use of this exotic species exist, because of the apparent possible dangers of the use of it. It is popularly believed in Bangladesh that the African catfish is a ferocious predator, capable even of eating small goats. The fear exists therefor that the African catfish will wipe out local fish populations. However, during the approximately 20 years the African catfish is being used in South Asia (and 15 years in Bangladesh), no scientific reports are made concerning possible negative impacts the species might have. Also during the implementation of the homestead fish-culture programme in Bangladesh no evidence was found concerning the ferociousness of this fish, on the contrary, it was perceived as a lazy omnivore, eating whatever comes in front of its mouth.


At present there is a thriving industry in Jessore (southwest Bangladesh) where millions of catfish fry are produced per month. This industry produces for (illegal) export to India, and for the local market. Fry traders all over the country sell the African catfish. Up till now the demand for catfish fry within the project area was low, so the market for these fry traders was of no importance. However, now, with the homestead fish culture programme running, demand is rising and fry traders are moving in to sell their fish. The traders distribute also to homesteads directly, making it possible for women to buy fry at their homesteads.


The sustainability of the programme depends completely on the availability of fry of the species involved. As long as the fry is available the programme has an opportunity to be successful.


The programme used an, for the Indian sub-continent, exotic species. To prevent any problems associated with the use of an exotic species this method should be tried with local species. These species should fulfil the following requirements:

  • Be able to survive in anoxic water
  • Be easy to keep, the fish should be able to eat what is available around the homestead
  • Be fast growing
  • Fry cheap and available
  • Species used must be accepted by participants and the market.

To make sure the African catfish does not become an environmental disaster, research has to be done concerning the ferociousness of the species, before a large-scale programme is set up to spread this method regionally and inter-regionally.

Because participants will use the common resources around their homestead, an impact assessment has to be made on the effect of homestead fish culture on the environment surrounding the homestead.

Although it was not an objective, the programme turned out to have a contribution to the improvement of the situation of women. It seems that it can be a useful tool in projects dealing with gender issues.

The described method turned out to be a highly successful way to reach the poorest segment in the project area concerned. The participants turned out to be highly motivated and very innovative. If the potentially negative aspects of the method after proper research show not to be negative this method should be propagated nationally in Bangladesh, and beyond the Bangladeshi borders.

FAO promotes, through their regular aquaculture programme, the integration of aquaculture into rural livelihoods. The described programme is an excellent example of this integration, with as an additional benefit the mobilization of a group of people which is very difficult to reach with ‘normal’ aquaculture programmes. The ‘ownership’, the possibility to make decisions concerning the application of the method, lies completely with the participants of the programme, giving them responsibility, resulting in a successful application of aquaculture by people from the poorest segment of society. All these factors make for a succesfull grass-root programme which could be followed in any rural development programme. Editors.

source :

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H5N1 bird flu : Boleh Merebak Jika Ikan Diberi Makan Sebegini

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Gambar ini dipetik dari laman web Dr Martin ketika beliau disalah sebuah negara di Nusantara. Kelihatan ikan keli memakan bangkai sebagai santapan percuma. Pemberian makanan sebegini menurut Dr Martin boleh menyebabkan merebaknya jangkitan H5N1 bird flu.
Sebagai penternak ikan keli yang peka dengan keadaan ini, di sarankan agar perkara seumpama ini dielakkan lebei-lebih lagi jika ianya bukan yang halal.

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KEMPEN Jana Ekonomi Melalui Ikan Keli

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Krisis ekonomi yang melanda dunia memerlukan satu daya usaha yang mudah dan berkesan bagi meningkatkan taraf ekonomi diri dan keluarga bagi setiap warganegara khusunya yang berada dibawah garis kemiskinan. Jawapan yang ada bagi pihak kami di RATUKELI adalah merangsang ekonomi melalui penternakan ikan keli. Penternakan ikan keli merupakan salah satu pendekatan yang agak mudah dan boleh menghasilkan pendapatan yang agak lumayan jika dilakukan dengan secara berilmu dan terdapat bantuan dari segi khidmat nasihat bagi mempastikan kejayaan penternak. Tanpa ilmu, usaha yang suci murni ini bakal menjadi sia-sia kerana walaupun nampak mudah tapi tidaklah semudah yang didengar dan dilihat.

Berdasarkan kepada kesedaran tersebut, Ilmu ternakan ikan keli telah dibukukan melalui ebook Panduan Asas Ternakan Ikan Keli (Siri 1). Moga dengan adanya panduan asas ini dapat membantu warganegara, peminat ikan keli dan bakal penternak ikan keli untuk mendapatkan ilmu asas ternakan ikan keli dan dengan segera dapat mempraktikkannya secara MUDAH dan MURAH.

12 Panduan asas ternakan telah dinobatkan dalam ebook berkenaan dan kemaskini panduan didalamnya akan diberikan secara percuma. Ianya amat sesuai bagi yang baru berjinak-jinak dengan ternakan ikan keli ataupun bagi penternak yang masih tercari-cari kaedah ternakan ikan keli yang termurah dan berkesan. Bagi yang tidak tahu menahu langsung tentang ikan keli, inilah ebook yang diperlukan selama ini bagi memulakan perniagaan ternakan ikan keli anda.

Bagi merealisasikan penyampaian ilmu asas ternakan ikan keli secara lebih meluas kepada warga penternak dan bakal penternak ikan keli Diseluruh Nusantara khasnya dan dunia amnya, maka kami telah merangka satu sistem affiliate terutama kepada warga blogger dan sesiapa yang mempunyai email bagi menyampaikan maklumat berkenaan ebook panduan asas ternakan ikan keli (siri 1) ini kepada semua rakan-rakan diseluruh pentas dunia. Melalui kaedah ini, sebagai galakan, setiap penjualan ebook yang berjaya akan diberikan hadiah/komisyen sebanyak RM10.00 sebagai tanda penghargaan atas bantuan anda mencanangkan dan mendidik masyarakat berkenaan potensi ikan keli bagi menjana ekonomi terutama dimasa Krisis Ekonomi Yang Melanda Dunia Sekarang sama terutama kepada mereka yang berada dibawah garis kemiskinan ataupun kepada sesiapa sahaja.

Bagaimana hendak menyertai kempen ini ??

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Moga dengan adanya usaha sebegini melalui penyebaran maklumat dan penyampaian ilmu ternakan ikan keli dapat membuka mata dan minda masyarakat bagi menjana ekonomi melalui usaha dan potensi yang ada pada ternakan ikan keli.

Moga Maju Jaya...

Ternakan Ikan Keli Adalah Satu Perniagaan



p.s. bagi yang pernah mendaftar sebelum KEMPEN ini dijalankan, sila daftar semula menggunakan id yang anda telah gunakan sebelum ini. Ini bagi mempastikan komisyen yang anda layak dapat dilakukan pembayaran.

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BEYOND SUBSISTENCE:Catfish farming is a lucrative business


After laying down his rifle and becoming a farmer six years ago, Omar Tacuken, a Moro National
Liberation Front (MNLF) Commander and the Chairman of Sebastian Irrigators Farmers Association (SIFA) in Carmen, North Cotabato Province could be found, on most days, driving a
tractor loaded with rice to the local mill. Now, a new activity has been added to his daily routinefeeding catfish. SIFA’s 43 members have stocked 2,700 square meters of ponds with catfish, and are regularly tending the ponds, and harvesting their product.

Further down the road in Barangay Kibines, MNLF Comdr. Tamson Antolin and 21 other members of the Sitio Bulakan Multi-Purpose Cooperative are doing the same in an 800 square meter pond stocked with 5,000 catfish fingerlings. They are two of the 13 cooperative groups (with a total membership of about 350) in North Cotabato, Maguindanao and Sultan Kudarat
Provinces in Central Mindanao, which have been trained by USAID’s Growth with Equity in
Mindanao (GEM) Program in catfish production technologies.

In their first effort, SIFA members harvested about 10 metric tons of catfish valued at Php 500,000 ($9,260). SIFA’s income of Php 90,000 ($1,670) was used to build a shed for a rice mill and buy a “turtle” tiller. With their income, the cooperative in Barangay Kibines expanded its ponds and bought more fingerlings and feed.

Since November 2002, GEM has assisted over 3,000 rebels turned farmers to diversify into
higher-value commodities, such as catfish, and move beyond subsistence farming. In April 2003,
GEM’s Targeted Commodity Expansion Program (TCEP) conducted a series of catfish production technology workshops to teach former combatants how to design, construct and prepare their ponds and to culture catfish.

TCEP also helped find buyers for their new product. A marketing agreement between the cooperatives and a hatchery operator/live catfish buyer in Kabakan, North Cotabato was negotiated. Prospects for growth look good. As the catfish farmers gain technical proficiency and expand the size and number their ponds, production is expected to reach 240 metric tons per year valued at about Php 14 Million (about $260,000) with an annual net income of Php 6 Million ($111,000) or an average added income of Php 18,000 ($330) per participant.
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Kursus Asas Penternakan Ikan Keli Sesi-21


Kursus Sesi Ke-21 telah dijayakan pada 18 April 2009 dengan kehadiran hampir 20 orang peserta kali ini.

Walaupun intipati asas kursus masih sama tetapi penekanan kursus kali ini lebih menjurus kepada penjagaan ternakan agar ianya hidup dan dapat dijual oleh peserta.

Kepada peserta kursus ke-21 syabas diucapkan dan bagi sesi ke-22 pula akan diadakan pada 02 Mei 2009.

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Air Yang Berlendir...???


Jika air ternakan anda kelihatan berlendir, sila pulihkan dengan menambah air yang telah dirawat atau membuang sebahagian air yang sedia ada dan tambahkan dengan air yang telah dirawat..
Ini kerana air yang kelihatan agak berlendir akan menghalang adanya Oksigen Terlarut dalam air dan menyebabkan ikan terpaksa bermain dan menegak dipermukaan air untuk mendapatkan bekalan oksigen...Akhir sekali jika berlaku kekurangan yang amat..kematian adalah jawapannya.....
Selamat Menternak..
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Wajah baru Laman Utama RATUKELI.COM

Label: berwajah baru....

Sekarang alamat web RatuKeli Mempunyai Laman Utama @ frontpage yang baru.....

Apabila anda melayari anda akan ke laman utama atau frontpage ratukeli yang baru tersebut....

Laman BLOG sedia ada masih dikekalkan bagi interaksi semasa dan UPDATING berkenaan informasi semasa ternakan ikan keli, penemuan terbaru, teknologi dan khidmat nasihat berkaitan ternakan ikan keli dan aktiviti semasa ratukeli....

Bagi melayai laman blog anda boleh klik BLOG dilaman utama atau terus ke alamat blog seperti berikut

Moga dengan adanya laman utama akan memudahkan penyampaian maklumat berkenaan ternakan ikan keli, khidmat syarikat kepada penternak, urusan jual beli barangan keperluan kolam dan aktiviti semasa...
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EBook Panduan Asas Ternakan Ikan Keli (Siri 1)


Kini anda boleh mendapatkan ebook Panduan Asas Ternakan Ikan Keli dengan Harga Pengenalan RM40 sahaja (Harga Pasaran RM50). Terhad kepada 33 orang sahaja....adakah anda termasuk dalam golongan yang 33 orang ini!!!!!!cepat......
Terdapat 12 Panduan berguna bagi memulakan ternakan ikan keli secara praktikal dan murah. Juga terdapat Senarai Semak bagi menternak agar anda tidak tersasar dari perkara yang sepatutnya anda lakukan................Dengan adanya Panduan Asas Ini anda tidak lagi menternak tanpa panduan dengan kata lain "cuba-cuba"....
Apa yang perlu anda lakukan hanya..............KLIK DISINI .............untuk mendapatkannya...
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Kursus Asas Penternakan Ikan Keli Sesi-20


Alhamdulillah, kursus asas sesi ke -2o telah dengan jayanya diadakan di Bilik Latihan, Ainul AgroBased di Batu 4, Jalan Matang, Kuching, Sarawak pada 04 April 2009. Seramai 84 orang peserta telah menghadirkan diri kali ini. Dalam kursus kali ini, penyertaan daripada Kaum Cina merupakan penyertaan yang paling banyak setakat ini.
Kursus kali ini berlanjutan sehingga jam 6 petang. Pelbagai persoalan tentang ternakan yang diajukan oleh peserta bagi meningkatkan pemahaman mereka. Inilah yang kita mahukan agar semua persoalan berkenaan ternakan diajukan semasa kursus diajukan dan dapat diberimaklum balas segera agar peserta dapat berjaya selepas kursus.
Para peserta kali ini kebanyakannya datang daripada luar daerah Kuching seperti dari Sebuyau, Simunjan, Serian dan Sibu. Syabas semua..moga usaha ternakan ikan keli ini dapat merapatkan hubungan diantara semua warga Sarawak demi mempertingkatkan ekonomi diri, keluarga dan negeri Sarawak khususnya dan Malaysia amnya.
Kursus Asas seterusnya akan diadakan pada 18 April 2009. Kita jumpa semasa kursus yer...
Suasana Semasa Kursus Berlangsung

Lawatan Ke Kolam Ternakan

Semasa Sesi Praktikal Ujian Air

Penyampaian Sijil Penyertaan

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Air Oh Air....


Ternakan Ikan keli lebih kepada penjagaan kualiti air untuk ternakan disamping teknik pemberian makanan kepada ikan.

Seperti yang disarankan dalam kursus asas ternakan, AIR HIJAU adalah merupakan kewajiban bagi ternakan ikan keli. Kenapa? Ini kerana dengan adanya air hijau ikan keli akan lebih cepat membesar, kurang mempunyai masalah air berbau hanyir dan mempunyai kadar oksigen yang lebih sesuai untuk ternakan ikan keli.

Jika air ternakan anda masih PUTIH atau PINK atau COKLAT, sila pastikan air ternakan anda dengan segeranya di tukar kepada AIR HIJAU...sama ada sebelum melepaskan anak ikan atau setelah memeliharanya sekian lama... Read More..

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